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Periodontics is the branch of dentistry dealing with the study and treatment of supporting structures of a teeth (periodontal) or gums, bone and fibers binding teeth to the bone. Periodontal literally means “around the tooth.”

Due to today’s lifestyle, wrong diet and day-to-day stress we can say that periodontal is extremely wide spread disease. Periodontitis is the most common disease of the oral cavity after cavity.

What is the cause of the periodontitis:

The main cause of periodontitis is bacterial plaque. The plaque is a colorless cluster of bacteria on teeth, crowns, bridges and other tissues of the mouth cavity. It is the main reason for deterioration of teeth supporting apparatus and if it is not removed, it results in unsteadyness and loss of teeth and decay of tooth bones. Plaque bacteria appears due to poor oral hygiene and bad habits like smoking or grinding of the teeth.


  • Bleeding gums while brushing or flossing
  • Red, swollen or sensitive gums
  • Receding gums
  • Pus appears after pressing the gums in gingiva
  • Teeth start to move or change their position
  • Bite change
  • Problems with RPD putting
  • Bad breath or bad taste in the mouth round-the-clock

So, if you notice bleeding gums during your teeth brushing or flossing, you should know there has been an inflammation of the marginal part of gums and the disease with which you are faced – gingivitis, is the initial stage of periodontitis. If left untreated, the infection penetrates deeper, causing formation of gingival pockets between teeth and gums. The consequence will be periodontitis as the most severe form of tooth-supporting apparatus disease.

What are the stages of periodontal disease

  • Gingivitis – the initial stage of disease, includes sensitive and inflamed gums which tend to bleed and  plaque which can turn into tartar.
  • Periodontitis – plaque bacteria and tartar destroy the bind of supporting soft tissue and teeth. Over time bacteria attacks bone tissue as well.
  • Severe periodontitis – the gums recede due to increasing destruction of bone and periodontal ligament. Even healthy teeth start moving and the final result is tooth extraction.

How to treat periodontal disease:

  • Removal of tartar and plaque deposits as major causes of disease
  • Deep cleaning of gingival pockets
  • Rinsing mouth cavity after deep cleaning
  • Taking antibiotics and other drugs to suppress inflammation
  • Additional house care besides brushing and flossing
  • Surgical removal of diseased gums (in extreme cases)


  • Proper oral hygiene of teeth and oral cavity
  • Removal of tartar and plaque on regular basis
  • Check-ups two times a year

Periodontitis as a cause of other health problems

  • It increases the risk of clogged arteries, heart disease and stroke.
  • It can lead to premature birth when the newborn will have less weight.
  • It makes difficulties during control of blood sugar levels.
  • Regarding elderly people, infection can be transmitted through their respiratory canals to their lungs, resulting in infection and severe pneumonia.


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